What is in this article?:
- Variety selection still the number one decision for cotton farmers
- Variety characteristics
- Look at more than one year’s data when selecting a new variety.
- Consider multiple locations as well.
- Variety selection dictates management for the rest of the year.
MARK KELLEY, Texas AgriLife Extension cotton specialist in Lubbock, discusses variety selection at a recent production conference in Brownfield, Texas.
Other characteristics to look for include:
- Relative maturity. Longer season varieties (mid- to full-season) may be better suited to the south. Shorter maturity (early to early mid-maturity) may perform better to the north. Information on maturity ranges should be available from seed company data or from Jane Dever, Texas AgriLife Research cotton breeder at Lubbock.
- Disease and nematode tolerance. The loss of Temik insecticide makes root-knot nematode management more critical. Some varieties have tolerance to the pest. Verticillium and Bacterial blight are also concerns and should be considered when selecting varieties. “Know your enemy,” Kelley says.
- Technology. Several packages of herbicide and insect tolerance traits are available. Herbicide traits include Roundup Ready Flex, Liberty Link, and GlyTol, with 2, 4-D and Dicamba resistance on the horizon. Identifying weed species and matching them to the best herbicides should be a priority. Insect resistance technology includes Bollgard II, WideStrike and TwinLink.
- Storm Resistance is also an important concern for West Texas cotton producers.
Morgan emphasizes the importance of variety selection and gathering information before selecting what to plant. “It’s the most important decision cotton farmers make all year,” he says. “The difference between the best variety and the lowest-yielding variety in trials is often as much as 30 percent.”
That much yield variability justifies the time farmers invest in evaluating varieties.
Kelley says the goal for High Plains farmers should be to find a variety that will reduce production risks. That means yield stability under a variety of weather conditions and water regimes, as well as an ability to produce high fiber quality.
Morgan says growers should look for long staple, higher than 35 or 1.08; high strength, more than 28 grams per tex; premium micronaire, 3.8 to 4.6; and a smooth leaf.
“Growers also need to maintain a diverse herbicide program, including cultivation, to minimize the potential for weed resistance,” Kelley says.
Plant pathology is also a part of the puzzle. “Knowing the disease or nematode species present in a specific field is vitally important,” he says. “Root-knot nematode, Verticillium wilt, and Bacterial blight tolerance or immunity can make a difference.”
Insect resistance is also a key consideration. “Bollgard II and WideStrike are keys for lepidoptera pests,” Kelley says.
Most High Plains farmers have taken advantage of new technology. In the Lubbock area, 49 percent are using Bollgard II technology and 5 percent are using WideStrike. In the Lamesa area, Bollgard II adoption is higher, up to 71 percent, with 7 percent using WideStrike.
In the Lubbock area, 70 percent of growers use Roundup Ready Flex; that jumps to 85 percent in the Lamesa area.
Several products featuring new technology will be available this year, or within the next two or three years, specialists say. They include GlyTol/LL with TwinLink from Bayer CropScience. “With these technologies, Bayer Crop Science, FiberMax and Stoneville brands will be completely independent of Monsanto with insect and herbicide traits,” Morgan says.
Other technology traits and products in the pipeline include varieties from Phytogen’s Enlist Technology with WideStrike insect traits, Roundup Ready Flex, Liberty tolerance, and 2,4-D tolerance. The Enlist Cotton weed control system provides the Colex-D technology herbicide from Dow AgroSciences as a low volatility 2,4-D premix with glyphosate to be applied over the Enlist Cotton.
Monsanto is expected to have a Roundup Ready Xtend Crop System in cotton in 2015 and will include Roundup Ready Flex, Dicamba, and Liberty tolerance by 2015. These Monsanto traits are scheduled for release in soybeans in 2014, and will give growers some opportunity to view the technology before it arrives in cotton. Monsanto will soon be transitioning from Bollgard II to Bollgard III technology that will include VipCot and BII traits.
Kelley expects acreage to decline in the High Plains in 2013. “Some of that land will go to corn, but some farmers will convert irrigated cotton to dryland.” Grain prices compared to cotton will be a driving force, but irrigation capacity may play a role in keeping some acreage in cotton.
In 2012, High Plains cotton farmers abandoned 45 percent of their planted acreage — a huge increase from the 4.6 percent abandoned in 2010, but an improvement over 2011, when farmers failed to harvest 60 percent of the planted acreage.
Morgan asked BIG participants to estimate potential cotton acreage reduction for the Texas Blacklands, and they ranged from 30 percent to 40 percent.
Last year’s High Plains’ crop was not as good as farmers had hoped, with an estimated production total of 2.92 million bales, far off the area record of 5.6 million in 2005, but still significantly better than the 1.84 million bales from the 2011 crop.
Kelley says farmers can’t predict how the 2013 crop year will turn out. Fall and winter have been on the dry side, with recent rainfall offering some hope. But to make a decent cotton crop, farmers have to start out with the best tools available — and that means selecting the best variety for specific fields, conditions and yield goals.