What is in this article?:
- Texas rice farmers have new management options
- Insecticides studied
- Texas rice farmers prepare for year with latest scoop on bugs, weeds, variety performance
- New insecticides in the pipeline
- Rainfall sh0ortage may be a factor for 2011
Dr. M.O. Way, AgriLife Research entomologist at Beaumont, said two tests on as-yet non-labeled insecticides will be presented to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in hopes of getting special-use labeling approved.
Among the research was a study on rice stink bugs in Texas, he said.
"We did a study to prove that rice stink bugs in Texas are becoming harder to control with current insecticides," Way said. "So we coated vials with an insecticide we were testing and put rice stink bugs from different areas into the vials. We left them in the vials for four hours then recorded mortality."
Way said rice stink bugs from Arkansas, Mississippi, Missouri, Louisiana and from the Beaumont region of Texas all were fairly easy to control with existing pesticides. Not so for stink bugs from Ganado and Round Mott in the southern end of the Texas rice belt. They were harder to control.
Insecticides currently not labeled for use in rice were better at controlling these bugs, so the research will be presented to the EPA for use in limited amounts and various conditions.
Likewise, Way said, the long-horned grasshopper which feeds on both insects and rice was very abundant in Texas rice last year. So the research team captured them in fields, put them in wire cages and sprayed them. The treated grasshoppers were put on untreated rice and mortality counted.
Two products – Tenchu and Endigo – provided 100 percent death of the grasshoppers, Way said.
Among the more exciting developments for the growers is a nitrogen soil test for rice – previously not available.
Dr. Trent Roberts from the University of Arkansas said his team is working with AgriLife Research scientists to finalize the nitrogen test, called N-ST*R (pronounced instar).
"The goal is to give a recommended rate to maximize yields," Roberts said. "And that doesn't always mean using the highest amount of nitrogen. We look at 100-, 95- and 90-percent yield."
Depending on the cost of urea, Roberts said, it may be better to go with 95- or 90-percent yield because a farmer may not make enough yield to justify the extra urea cost (required for 100 percent).
Roberts said the test, which is still in development, uses an 18-inch-deep sample rather than the more common 6-inch soil sample. That's because the rice root tends to grow to that depth.
He showed results from a demonstration in which 150 pounds of nitrogen were applied per acre on a field that yielded 192 bushels per acre. But on a field that had the soil test, 95 pounds of nitrogen were applied per acre and the field yielded 195 bushels per acre.
"Not every field will result in a huge reduction of N use," Roberts said. "But we are going to give the farmer site-specific recommendations to maintain the yield at the best level for that field."
He said the test is "on the horizon" and the team is looking for full-field trials to test along with collaborating with researchers in other states such as with AgriLife Research scientists.
McCauley said the soil test for rice fields is a first that will give "an accurate projection of what we need to be doing. So we are moving forward trying to adapt this in the Texas condition."