“There is kind of a worldwide crisis right now in human medicine because for some bacteria such as MRSA, we are down to only one antibiotic that works,” Young said. “Bacteria have this very pronounced characteristic of being able to very rapidly become drug-resistant. And that’s a problem. There is a need for alternatives to antibiotics.”

So serious is the issue that the Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance was initiated in 1999 following a congressional hearing on the topic, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Ten federal agencies are participating in the effort. A transatlantic effort on the topic was formed between the U.S. and Europe in 2009.

“People infected with antimicrobial-resistant organisms are more likely to have longer, more expensive hospital stays and may be more likely to die as a result of the infection,” the CDC notes on its website.

Phages are not new to science. They were first described in 1915, before what Young called “modern biology.” Years after the phage discovery, scientists began exploring molecular biology and the intricacies of DNA.

What researchers now know is that the phage, or bacterial virus, encounters a bacterial cell, absorbs to it, injects its DNA into it and “typically 30 minutes later, the bacteria cell explodes,” Young explained. Several hundred new virus particles then continue on to eliminate other targeted bacterial cells, if any.

So, almost 100 years after their discovery, scientists can isolate bacteria phages, sequence their DNA and engineer them to be more effective against certain types of bacteria, he said.

“They are relatively cheap to produce,” Young said. “All you need to grow them is a culture of the bacteria that you want to kill. You throw one bacterial phage particle in there, come back in a few hours and you have trillions of the bacteria phages, and the bacteria cells have all been killed. Phages grow themselves, that’s the beauty of them.”

However, regulation will play a role in future development, he noted, because U.S. Food and Drug Administration policies currently subject phage technology to the same criteria as chemical drugs.

“If I give you a chemical drug, that drug is likely to penetrate every tissue of your body—your ears, your eyes, your nose, your heart, your kidneys. And a chemical can have a different effect on every organ,” Young explained. “And that is why drug testing is so important. I would not advocate lowering the barriers for chemical drugs at all.

“But bacteriophages are not going to go to your eyes, your ears, your brain.

And even if they did, they can’t do anything,” Young said. “They’re not capable of even recognizing human cells, and even if they could, the way genes are set up in bacteria phages are completely different than the way they are in humans, so they would not be recognized as genes.”