High oleic, disease resistant, early, medium or late maturity, Southwestern peanut farmers have plenty of options as they plan for their 2005 crop.
“We’ve had a number of new varieties released the last few years,” said Todd Baughman, Texas A&M peanut specialist. Baughman, who works out of the Research and Extension Center at Vernon, discussed varieties recently at peanut production workshop in Brownfield.
Baughman said six varieties have come out of the University of Florida breeding program in the past few years. Texas A&M and the University of Georgia have released two apiece as well.
Baughman said new varieties with high oleic oil content include: Tamrun OL 01 and OL 02, along with Andru II, ANorden, GA O2C, GP-1 and Hall. Broken into maturity groups, Andru II and GP-1 are considered early. OL 01 and OL 02, O2C, ANorden and Carver are medium maturity varieties; C99R, DP-1 and Hall are late maturity peanuts.
“These were late in Florida tests so they are probably not suitable for West Texas conditions,” Baughman said.
He said Tamrun OL 01 and OL 02, Andru II, ANorden, Carver and GA 026 show resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus. Both the Tamrun OL varieties, Andru II, ANorden and Carver have resistance to Southern blight. ANorden and Carver have limb rot resistance. And GA 02C and Carver have resistance to CBR. Both Tamrun OL varieties have some resistance to sclerotinia.
Baughman said 2004 yield tests show a Golden Peanut experimental variety, AT 127, on top with a 3,890 pound per acre average. ANorden was second. Over a two-year period ANorden topped yield tests, followed by GP-1 and Flavorrunner 458.
“Our top three varieties all produced just under two tons per acre,” Baughman said. In 11 variety trials the past two years, Carver placed in the top one-third of all varieties in 9 out of 11 trials. ANorden placed in the top one-third in seven of nine tests. “ANorden seems to have a lot of potential, but we haven’t looked at maturity and quality factors under West Texas conditions,” Baughman said.
Flavorrunner 458 yielded in the top one-third in four of nine tests. Tamrun OL 01 hit the top third four of nine tests. Andru hit that mark four of 11 times, as did Tamrun 96. Baughman said AT 127, GA 02C, GA O3L, GP-1, Nematam, and Tamrun OL 02 all were top yielders in at least one trial.
Growers also have a few new Virginia type varieties. NC 12C is an early variety with intermediate resistance to CBR. “Pod and seed characteristics are similar to NC7.” Gregory is a new variety that’s slightly earlier than NC7 with larger seed and pods. It has resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus and CBR.
Perry is slightly later than NC7 and has some resistance to CBR and tolerance to sclerotinia. Jupiter, an Oklahoma state entry, is earlier than NC7 and has a high percentage of large pods, Baughman said.
In variety trials, NC 12C made top yields followed by Gregory and Perry. “NC 12C was 1,000 pounds better than NC7,” Baughman said. He also looked at herbicide tolerance, assuming farmers occasionally plant peanuts behind a hailed out cotton crop or under conditions where a double rate of herbicide has been used. He tested Cadre, Valor and Strong Arm at the regular rate and a double rate with OL 01, OL 02, Florunner, Flavorrunner 458, Tamspan and Olin varieties.
“We noted injury at less than 10 percent at the 1X rate,” Baughman” said. “At the 2X rate, we saw injury greater than 10 percent but no yield effect.” The effect was similar on Virginia varieties, he said.